Dr Kaye Gersch PhD.  
Psychoanalytic Psychotherapist
Couples therapist
Clinical Supervisor

Click here to edit subtitle

The Feminine in Body Language and Spirituality
Doctoral thesis, School of History, Philosophy, Religion and Classics, University of Queensland, 2013

The full text of this thesis is available on the University of Queensland website: http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:313275

some part of us always

out beyond ourselves

knowing knowing knowing

are we all in training for something we don’t name?

Adrienne Rich

(Rich, 1982, p. 45)

Women have been thinking in and as female bodies within a language-structure bequeathed by Western androcentric culture. I intend to discover and express that which has been unthought for, or by, women within phallogocentric culture. This is the horizon to which I am oriented. Hence Adrienne Rich’s poem; women are “in training for something we don’t name”, and which we are as yet unable to name. Yet we are guided by “knowing, knowing, knowing”. I aim to translate this knowing into thinking and speaking as a female subject, independent of the masculine symbolic. I argue for a new identity not embedded within it.

The questions which prompt this thesis are; what do we mean by ‘the feminine’ and how does this relate to women, especially through language and through dwelling in a body sexed as female. Further, in what way might women’s spirituality be different from those who are sexed as male? Corollary to this question, are traditional patriarchal religious forms suited to women? I aim to extract thinking from a dependence on the masculine symbolic with its dualistic assumptions, and simultaneously expose the necessity for a new identity not embedded in it. Throughout, my primary interlocutors are C. G. Jung and Luce Irigaray, because they each frame a spirituality and subjectivity for women as distinct from both patriarchy and the concerns of men.


What, then, is the most favourable way to inquire into ‘the feminine’, women’s subjectivity, and divinity-in-the-feminine? What question do I need to ask? What suppositions must I challenge? In what ways might women be connected to ‘the feminine’? Is the very concept of ‘the feminine’ a patriarchal invention, an ideal projected onto women by men? Luce Irigaray "defines patriarchy as a historical and masculine system devoid of value in the feminine” (Martin, 2000, p. 53).  Could it be that even the notion of ‘the feminine’ is a depersonalized androcentric abstraction, which functions as a defense against the actual presence of embodied women?

Using the terms true and false self, Donald Winnicott argued that in order to pose a true question, we must be situated in the true self. Answers are too easily provided by the false (enculturated) self (Winnicott, 1965). An example of the importance of posing the question is provided by the Grail myth, where the knight Perceval only has to pose the question, “Who does the Grail serve?” (E. Jung & von Franz, 1998). He is not required to provide the answer. The question, however, eludes him. Has the right question eluded women, and then prevented them from discovering the right answer?

Chapter One: “Interrogating ‘the Feminine’”.

I differentiate between ‘the feminine’, both historically and in the present, and women as sexed female subjects. I consider whether Jung's idea of archetypes might be a form of essentialism, an a priori claim on (one’s) being, but conclude that they nevertheless contribute to a contemporary understanding of women and the feminine. I explore the notion of women’s experience, and women’s religious experience specifically. I argue for the inclusion of all women’s experience, while I simultaneously allow that experience might be contaminated by patriarchal beliefs, structures, and language. 

I argue that Luce Irigaray’s insistence on sexuate difference provides a fertile possibility for inquiry into the nature of the feminine and the experience of women. The concept of ‘sexuate’ difference articulates the different modes of being and becoming for men and women, in bodily, social, linguistic, aesthetic, erotic, and political and religious forms. Further, Luce Irigaray’s notions of genealogy reveal stylistic variation of a feminine way, and allow for multiple expressions of femininity. Having established sexuate difference as foundational, I begin an in-depth critical analysis of how this applies to the body, language and spirituality of women.

Chapter Two: “Cultivating the Feminine Body”.

I ask how our notions of body and experience in the body would change if we were to put aside the body/spirit trope, that is, if we did not separate bodily experience from spiritual experience. I demonstrate that a woman’s experience of/in/as her body should be understood as a body/spirit continuum when viewed through the lens of Luce Irigaray’s sensible/transcendental. I argue for the importance of cultivating the body, which enables me to reinstate (and restate) the divinity of carnality, or the spiritualization of the flesh, and further support my use of Luce Irigaray’s sensible/transcendental.

I argue that spirituality is available through the senses, through the sensible self, and that both body and mind need to be cultivated, especially through the breath. For both Irigaray and Jung the aim of cultivation is to establish a connection between above and below, spirituality and carnality; I equate Irigaray’s use of cultivation with Jung’s notion of Individuation. I elaborate other aspects of ‘cultivation’ employed by Irigaray to support my emphasis on conscious feminine becoming; namely the cultivation of ethical relations with the other, the cultivation of language suited to the feminine subject, and the cultivation and spiritualization of the body and the senses, ultimately towards ‘becoming divine’.

Chapter Three: “Language” – It Takes My Breath Away”.

I propose that women find a language that provides a free dwelling, (Heidegger) rather than a prison (Simone Weil). I challenge the idea of dualism in the philosophy of mind, that is the posing of body and mind as opposites, so I take female morphology, in both the linguistic and biological sense, and argue them as a continuum. That is, the form and structure of the human being sexed as female influences the structure and process of the language she uses. This chapter elaborates this theme. I propose that Poïesis and erotic logos are forms of language more suited to a feminine speech and becoming, and I argue that these forms escape the dominance of logos.  I discuss erotic logos as a language for women, and investigate the story of Sheherazade and the Thousand and one Nights to discover how women might speak, and still remain alive (in the symbolic). I am dedicated to (finding and using a) language that is not ‘disembodying’ but ‘incarnating’. I argue that language needs to arise from myself and not merely though the logos of another, especially a sexuate other. While language is a product of the Symbolic Order, I follow Lacan in asserting that language can critique (or undermine) itself, in a similar way that one has an ego but at the same time one has to withstand the demise of its (psychotic) supremacy. Lacan claimed this as the ‘feminine’ position. I demonstrate ways in which Luce Irigaray achieves this position; she poetically inhabits the elements, for instance, to demonstrate how philosophy has ignored the material, especially air, in favour of the metaphysical.

Chapter Four: “Mysticism as Feminine Divine”.

I discuss mysticism as a direct response - or access to - the numinous, and propose this as a means by which women (or, possibly, men) can avoid the constructs of meaning of the symbolic. I define, discuss, and amplify what mysticism might be for feminine spirituality, both past and present. I contrast the possibility of a feminine divine apprehended and experienced in the mystical with a masculine divine enclosed within the symbolic and codified in religious dogma/theory. I take a position that equates feminine jouissance with divinity in the feminine. As I define it, mysticism is a body/spirit confluence, an experience of Luce Irigaray’s sensible/transcendental. My argument for the mystical as feminine divine avoids the need for the Christian paternal God. I am not arguing for a theist God (or Goddess) at all, but rather for an experience which does not automatically become translated through a priori assumptions about God, (including ‘his’ existence) and the rational foundations of true belief. I claim that a contemporary philosophy of religion does not need a loyalty to the notion that religious belief must be rationally justified as true, as in the phallogocentric system.

Chapter Five: “The Handless Maiden: Femininity Derogated”.

By way of extending my analysis of the feminine, I devote my final two chapters to an exploration of myth and fairy tale. I show how this narrative form presents the issues raised in the work so far in poetic and allegorical language, which can convey more than the text, and present a new horizon. In this analysis I apply key elements of Luce Irigaray’s work; specifically the notions of self-affection, virginity, solitude and silence, the sensible/transcendental, and sexuate difference. 

Husserl’s idea of philosophy was a “radical inquiry that proceeds with the help of imagination and fiction” (Heinämaa, 2003, p. 15). This fairy tale aids our imagination, and as such it enables a development of philosophy. I argue that the handless state of the young woman represents the position in which all women find themselves. Without recourse to philosophy, theology or psychology, the particular genre of fairy tale proposes a cause, amplifies the details of her/women’s predicament, and most remarkably, proposes a course of action not only for the young woman herself, but also for those around her and in contemporary culture.

Chapter Six: “The Handed Maiden: Femininity Restored”. 

I continue an interpretation of the fairy tale, and we shall see how, through the image of her hands growing back, the Maiden/Queen demonstrates the retrieving of female subjectivity and spirituality. Through the young woman’s sojourn in the cottage in the forest, accompanied by the virgin white as snow and the angel, through solitude/silence, I imagine her discovering her virginity/self affection. It is important to include this discussion of a fairy tale, because many, if not all the subjects of my argument in earlier chapters are demonstrated in this story. As such, the last two chapters constitute a summary and amplification of the thesis.


I argue that a lack of understanding of ‘the feminine’ has led to an impoverishment of not only women, but our entire culture, specifically in how we approach and exploit the environment, and in this I relate ‘the feminine’ and ‘environment’. Ethics ‘in the feminine’ would encompass both women and nature, and result in a revolution in how each is viewed and experienced. Throughout, I revisit the question as to whether so-called ‘feminine’ experiences might also be available to men, and depart from Irigaray’s position on this point. I do so by appealing to different archetypes or paradigms as operating simultaneously, that of sexuate difference and mystical spirituality, for instance.


Abram, David. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World. New York: Vintage, 1997.

Abram, David, and David Jardine. "All Knowledge Is Carnal Knowledge." Canadian Journal of Environmental Education 5, no. 1 (2000): 167-78.

Adorno, Theodor, W. Negative Dialectics. Translated by E. B Ashton. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973.

Alston, William. Perceiving God: The Epistemology of Religious Experience. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Anderson, Elizabeth. "Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science." edited by Edward N Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2011.

Anderson, Pamela Sue. "Feminist Challenges to Conceptions of God: Exploring Divine Ideals." Philosophia 35 (2007): 361–70.

———. A Feminist Philosophy of Religion: The Rationality and Myths of Religious Belief: Blackwell, 1998.

———. "Re-Visioning Gender in Philosophy of Religion: Reason, Love and Epistemic Locatedness." Ashgate, 2012.

———. "Transcendence and Feminist Philosophy: On Avoiding Apotheosis." In Women and the Divine: Touching Transcendence, edited by Gillian Howie and J'annine Jobling. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Anderson, Pamela Sue, and Beverley Clack, eds. Feminist Philosophy of Religion: Critical Readings. London: Routledge, 2004.

Attwood, Margaret. "The Girl without Hands." (1995), http://www.endicott-studio.com/cofhs/cofgwoh.html.

Avens, Roberts. The New Gnosis: Heidegger, Hillman and Angels. Dallas, Texas: Spring Publications, 1984.

Avila, Saint Teresa of The Collected Works of Teresa of Avila. Translated by Otilio O.C.D. Rodriguez and Kieran O.C.D. Kavanaugh. Vol. 2. Washington: Washington Province of Discalced Carmelites Inc 1980.

Avila, St Teresa of. "The Interior Castle." In Lightworkers.

Aylesworth, Gary. "Postmodernism." edited by Edward N Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2012.

Bachelard, Gaston. The Poetics of Reverie: Childhood, Language, and the Cosmos. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971.

Bakhtin, M. Problems of Dostojevskij’s Poetics: Theory and History of Literature (Vol. 8). Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1984.

Barthes, Roland. Mythologies. Translated by Annette Lavers. New York: Hill and Wang, 1984.

Beattie, Tina. God's Mother, Eve's Advocate: A Gynocentric Refiguration of Marian Symbolism in Engagement with Luce Irigaray2001.

Beattie, Tina "Redeeming Mary: The Potential of Marian Symbolism for Feminist Philosophy of Religion." In Feminist Philosophy of Religion, Critical Readings, edited by P.S. & Clack Anderson, B. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Berman, M. Coming to Our Senses. Seattle: Seattle Writier's Guild, 1988.

Berry, Patricia. Echo's Subtle Body. Dallas: Spring Publications, 2008.

Berry, Thomas. The Dream of the Earth. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1988.

Bolen, Jean Shinoda. Goddesses in Every Woman. New York: Harper Collins, 1984.

Bollas, Christopher. Forces of Destiny: Psychoanalysis and Human Idiom. New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc, 1989.

Bourdieu, Pierre. The Logic of Practice. Translated by Richard Nice. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990.

Briggs, Sheila. "A History of Our Own: What Would a Feminist History of Theology Look Like?" In Horizons in Feminist Theology: Identity, Tradition, and Norms, edited by R. S. Chopp, & Davaney, S. G. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1997.

Brison, Susan J. Aftermath: Violence and the Remaking of a Self. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Brown, Norman Oliver. Life against Death: The Psychoanalytical Meaning of History. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1959.

Burke, C., N. Schor, and M. Whitford. Engaging with Irigaray: Feminist Philosophy and Modern European Thought. New York: Columbia University Press., 1994.

Butler, Judith. Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits Of "Sex". New York: Routledge, 1993.

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Holy Feast, Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women. Berkeley University of California Press 1987.

———. "Images of the Resurrection Body in the Theology of Late Antiquity." The Catholic Historical Review 80, no. 2 (1994): 215-37.

———. "Why All the Fuss About the Body? A Medievalist's Perspective." Critical Inquiry 22, no. 1 (1995): 1-33.

———. "Wonder." The American Historical Review 102 no. 1 (1997): 1-26.

Byrne, Jean. "Enlightenment between Two: Luce Irigaray, Sexual Difference and Nondual Oneness." Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Queensland, 2008.

———. "Who Am I? A Response to the Koan “Woman”." Woman-Church: An Australian Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 35, no. November (2004): 38-43.

Calza, Gracia. "Dark Kissing." Cairns: Seminar presentation, 2007.

Campbell, Joseph. The Power of Myth. New York: Public Broadcasting Service, 1988. Film series.

———. Primitive Mythology: The Masks of God. New York: Penguin, 1959.

Cavarero, Adriana. Relating Narratives: Storytelling and Selfhood. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Ching, Julia. "The Mirror Symbol Revisited." In Mysticism and Religious Traditions, edited by Steven Katz. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Cixous, Hélène, and C. Clément. The Newly Born Woman, Theory and History of Literature. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1986.

Clément, Catherine. Syncope: The Philosophy of Rapture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994.

Clément, Catherine, and Julia Kristeva. The Feminine and the Sacred, European Perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

Cocteau, Jean. "La Belle and La Bête." 1946.

Cohen, Andrew. "The Holy Life." (2012), http://click.enlightennext-mail.org/?qs=12800282a5e702a10cc1fbfb90d8157eca534da9ed9dbf581b20cd15aa4f978e.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. The Collected Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Biographia Literaria. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983.

Collins, Mary. "Naming God in Public Prayer." Worship 59 (1985): 291-304.

Cooper, Martha, and Carole Blair. "Foucault's Ethics." Qualitative Inquiry 8, no. 4 (2002): 511-31.

Cornell, Drucilla. At the Heart of Freedom: Feminism, Sex and Equality. Princeton: Princeton Unviersity Press, 1998.

Craig, E. "An Encounter with Medard Boss." The Humanistic Psychologist 16, no. 1 (1988): 24-58.

Cupitt, Don. Mysticism after Modernity. Malden: Blackwell, 1998.

Dallett, Janet, O. The Not-yet Transformed God –Depth Psychology and the Individual Religious Experience. York Beach: Nicola-Hays, Inc, 1998.

Daly, Mary. Beyond God the Father: Towards a Philosophy of Liberation. Boston: Beacon Press, 1973.

Davies, Barbara. "The Jungian Interpretation of Fairy Tales." Seminar presentation, Cairns, Australia, 2006.

de Beauvoir, Simone. L’existentialisme Et La Sagesse De Nations Paris: Editions Nagels, 1963.

———. Memoires of a Dutiful Daughter. London: Penguin, 1963.

———. The Prime of Life. Translated by Peter Green. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1981.

———. The Second Sex. Translated by Constance Borde and Sheila Malovany-Chevallier. London: Jonathan Cape, 2009.

———. The Second Sex. Translated by H.M Parshley. London: Vintage Books, 1989.

Derrida, Jacques. "Geschlecht Ii: Heidegger’s Hand." In Deconstruction and Philosophy, edited by John Sallis, 161–96. Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1988.

———. "The Paregon." In The Continental Aesthetics Reader, edited by Clive Cazeaux. London: Routledge, 2002.

Descartes, Rene. The Philosophical Works of Descartes / Rendered into English by Elizabeth S. Haldane and G.R.T. Ross. London: Cambridge University Press, 1955.

Deslauriers, Marguerite. "Lucrezia Marinella." In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta, 2012.

Deutscher, Penelope. "The Only Diabolical Thing About Women…: Luce Irigaray on Divinity." Hypatia 9, no. 4 (1994): 88-111.

———. A Politics of Impossible Difference: The Later Work of Luce Irigaray. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002.

———. Yielding Gender: Feminism, Deconstruction and the History of Philosophy. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Douglas, Claire. Woman in the Mirror: Analytic Psychology and the Feminine Boston: Sigo Press, 1990.

Douglas-Klotz, Neil. The Hidden Gospel: Decoding the Spiritual Messages of the Aramaic Jesus. Wheaton: Quest Books, 1999.

———. Prayers of the Cosmos. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.

Dourley, John. "Rerooting in the Mother: The Numinosity of the Night." In The Idea of the Numinous: Contemporary Jungian and Psychoanalytic Perspectives, edited by Anne Casement and David Tacey. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Downing, Christine. Women’s Mysteries: Towards a Poetics of Gender. New York Crossroad, 1992.

Dubosc, Fabrice Olivier. "Thus Spoke Sheherazade: Gender Repression and Imaginal Recollection in the One Thousand and One Nights." Milan: Unpublished work, 2000.

———. "Thus Spoke Sheherazade: Gender Repression and Imaginal Recollection in the One Thousand and One Nights." Milan: Unpublished work, 2003.

Dundes, Alan. "The Psychoanalytic Study of the Grimms' Tales with Special Reference to the Maiden without Hands." Germanic Review 62, no. 2 (1987): 50-.

Duran, Jane. Toward a Feminist Epistemology. Savage, MD: Rowman and Littlefield., 1991.

Eckhart, Meister. The Essential Sermons, Commentaries, Treatises, and Defense. Translated by Edmund Colledge and Bernard McGinn, Classics of Western Spirituality. New York: Paulist Press, 1981.

Edinger, Edward. The New God-Image: A Study of Jung's Key Letters Concerning the Evolution of the Western God-Image. Wilmette: Chiron Publications, 1996.

El Saffar, Ruth Anthony. Rapture Encaged: The Suppression of the Feminine in Western Culture. London: Routledge, 1994.

Eliot, T. S. The Four Quartets. London: Faber, 1944.

Eller, Cynthia. The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Won’t Give Women a Future Boston: Beacon Press, 2000.

Elton, Zeena, and Kaye Gersch. "The Assumption of the Virgin." Brisbane: Unpublished Paper, 2012.

Emerson, R.W. Self-Reliance and Other Essays. Nashville: American Reliance, 2010.

Estes, Clarissa Pinkola. Women Who Run with the Wolves: Contacting the Power of the Wild Woman. Sydney: Random House, 1992.

Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas. The Essence of Christianity. London: Johan Chapman, 1844.

Filipczak, Dorota. "Autonomy and Female Spirituality in a Polish Context: Divining a Self." In Feminist Philosophy of Religion: Critical Readings, edited by P.S. & Clack Anderson, B. London: Routledge, 2004.

Fink, Bruce. "The Lacanian Subject: Between Language and Jouissance." http://avoidingthevoid.wordpress.com/2010/01/04/notes-from-the-lacanian-subject-between-language-and-jouissance-by-bruce-fink/.

Firestone, Shulamith. The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution New York: Morrow, 1970.

Foucault, Michel. On the Ways of Writing History. In Aesthetics, Method and Epistemology. Translated by Robert Hurley, The Essential Works of Michel Foucault Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1967.

Fox, Matthew, ed. Hildegard of Bingen's Book of Divine Works. Santa Fe: Beare and Company, 1987.

Frankenberry, Nancy. "Feminist Philosophy of Religion." edited by Edward N Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2011.

———. "Philosophy of Religion in Different Voices." In Philosophy in a Feminist Voice: Critiques and Reconstructions, edited by J.A. Kourany. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Frankenbury, Nancy. "Philosophy of Religion in Different Voices." In Feminist Philosophy of Religion: Critical Readings, edited by Elizabeth Anderson and Beverley Clack. London: Routledge, 2004.

Freud, Sigmund. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Translated by James Strachey. 24 vols. Vol. 15. London: Hogarth, 1953-1974.

Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique. New York: Norton and Co, 1963.

Friesen, J. Glenn. "Enstasy, Ecstasy and Religious Self-Reflection: A History of Dooyeweerd’s Ideas of Pre-Theoretical Experience." (2011), http://www.members.shaw.ca/aevum/Enstasy.pdf.

Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957.

Fuegi, John. Bertolt Brecht: Chaos, According to Plan Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Fuss, Diana. Essentially Speaking: Feminism, Nature & Difference. New York: Routledge, 1989.

Gadamer, Hans-Georg. Truth and Method. Translated by Garrett Barden and John Cumming. Second ed. New York: The Seabury Press, 1975.

Garry, Ann. "Analytic Feminism." edited by Edward Zalta, N. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2011.

Gaskin, Ina May. Spiritual Midwifery. Summertown: Book Publishing Company, 2002.

Gellman, Jerome. "Mysticism." In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta, 2011.

Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice: Psychologicaltheory and Women's Development. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Faust, Part Ii. Translated by Leopold Bernays. London: John Wertheimer and Co, 1839.

Goldenberg, Naomi. The Changing of the Gods. Boston: Beacon Press, 1979.

———. "Dreams and Fantasies as Sources of Revelation: Feminist Appropriation of Jung." In Womanspirit Rising, edited by C. P. Christ and Judith Plaskow. San Fransicso: Harper, 1992.

Goldenberg, Naomi R. "Archetypal Theory and the Separation of Mind and Body." In Weaving the Visions: Patterns in Feminist Spirituality, edited by Judith Plaskow and C. P. Christ. San Francisco: Harper, 1989.

Gosetti-Ferencei, Jennifer Anna. Heidegger, Hölderlin, and the Subject of Poetic Language: Toward a New Poetics of Dasein. Edited by John. D Caputo, Perspectives in Continental Philosophy. New York: Fordham University Press, 2004.

Gray, Frances. "Elemental Philosophy: Language and Ontonology in Mary Daly's Texts." In Feminist Interpretations of Mary Daly, edited by S. L. Hoagland, & Frye, M. University Park: Pennsylvania State University, 2000.

———. Jung, Irigaray, Individuation: Philosophy, Analytical Psychology, and the Question of the Feminine. London: Routledge, 2008.

Graybeal, Jean. Language And "The Feminine" In Nietzsche and Heidegger. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm. Household Tales. Translated by Margaret Hunt. London: George Bell, 1884.

Grosz, Elizabeth. "The Force of Sexual Difference." In Sex, Breath, and Force: Sexual Difference in a Post-Feminist Era, edited by Ellen Mortensen. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006.

———. Space, Time and Perversion: Essays on the Politics of Bodies. New York: Routledge, 1995.

———. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism, Theories of Representation and Difference. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Hadewijch. Hadewijch: The Complete Works. Translated by O.S.B. Mother Columba Hart, The Classics of Western Spirituality. New York: The Paulist Press, 1980.

Hampson, Daphne. "That Which Is God." In Women and the Divine:Touching Transcendence, edited by J'annine Jobling and Gillian Howie. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Hand, Seán. The Levinas Reader. Oxford: Blackwell, 1989.

Harding, M Esther. Woman's Mysteries, Ancient and Modern. Boston: Shambhala, 1990.

Harding, Sandra, ed. The Feminist Standpoint Theory Reader: Intellectual and Political Controversies. London: Routledge, 2004.

———. Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking from Women’s Lives. Ithaca New York: Cornell University Press, 1991.

Harris, Judith. Jung and Yoga: The Psyche-Body Connection. Toronto: Inner City Books, 2001.

Hartsock, Nancy. "The Feminist Standpoint: Developing the Ground for a Specifically Feminist Historical Materialism." In Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, edited by S. Harding and M. Hintikka. Boston: D.Reidel Publishing Company, 1983.

Haynes, Patrice. "The Problem of Transcendence in Irigaray’s Philosophy of Sexual Difference." In New Topics in Feminist Philosophy of Religion: Contestations and Transcendence Incarnate, edited by P. S. Anderson. London: Springer, 2008.

———. "Transcendence, Materialism, and Reenchantment." In Women and the Divine: Touching Transcendence, edited by Gillian Howie and J'annine Jobling. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Heidegger, Martin. Basic Writings. Translated by David Farrell Krell. London: Harper and Row, 1977.

———. The Metaphysical Foundations of Logic. Translated by Michael Heim. Bloomington: The University of Indiana Press, 1984.

———. Poetry, Language, Thought. Translated by Albert Hofstadter. London: Harper and Row, 1971.

———. "The Principle of Identity." In Identity and Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Heideggger, Martin. Poetry, Language, Thought. Translated by Albert Hofstadter. London: Harper and Row, 1971.

Hein, Hilde. "Liberating Philosophy." In Women, Knowledge, and Reality: Explorations in Feminist Philosophy, edited by A. Garry, & Pearsall, M. London: Routledge, 1996.

Heinämaa, Sara. Toward a Phenomenology of Sexual Difference: Husserl, Merleau-Ponty, Beauvoir. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003.

Hillman, James. Alchemical Psychology. Uniform Edition Vol. 5. Dallas: Spring Publications, 2012.

———. A Blue Fire: Selected Writings. London: Harper Perennial, 1989.

———. "An Inquiry into Image." Spring: An Annual of Archetypal Psychology and Jungian Thought (1977): 62-88.

———. Puer and Senex. 3 vols. Putnam, Connecticut: Spring Publications, 2005.

Hirsh, Elizabeth, and Gary Olson, A. ""Je--Luce Irigaray": A Meeting with Luce Irigaray." Hypatia 10, no. 2 (1995): 93-114.

Hollywood, Amy M. "Beauvoir, Irigaray, and the Mystical." Hypatia 9, no. 4 (1994): 158-85.

———. Sensible Ecstasy: Mysticism, Sexual Difference, and the Demands of History. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Hood, Raph W Jr., and James R. Hall. "Gender Differences in the Description of Erotic and Mystical Experiences." Review of Religious Research 21, no. 2, Spring (1980): 195-207.

Howie, Gillian, and J'annine Jobling, eds. Women and the Divine: Touching Transcendence. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Hughes, Aaron. "Judah Abrabanel." edited by Edward N Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2008.

Hunt, Harry T. Lives in Spirit: Precursors and Dilemmas of a Secular Western Mysticism Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003.

Huskinson, Lucy. "Holy, Holy, Holy: The Misappropriation of the Numinous in Jung." In The Idea of the Numinous: Contemporary Jungian and Psychoanalytic Perspectives edited by Ann Casement and David Tacey, 200-12. New York: Routledge, 2006.

———. "Ordinarily Mythical." In Dreaming the Myth Onwards: New Directions in Jungian Therapy and Thought, edited by Lucy Huskinson. New York: Routledge, 2008.

Hutton, Sarah. "The Cambridge Platonists." edited by Edward N Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2008.

Ingram, Penelope. "From Goddess Spirituality to Irigaray's Angel: The Politics of the Divine." Feminist Review 66 (2000): 46-72.

Irigaray, Luce. Between East and West: From Singularity to Community, European Perspectives. Chichester: Columbia University Press, 2003.

———. "Beyond Totem and Idol, the Sexuate Other." SpringerLink (2007): 453-361.

———. Conversations. London: Continuum, 2008.

———. Elemental Passions. New York: Routledge, 1992.

———. "Ethical Gestures Towards the Other." Poligrafi 15, no. 57 (2010): 1-30.

———. An Ethics of Sexual Difference. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.

———. Everyday Prayers. University of Nottingham: Maisonneuve & Larose, 2004.

———. The Forgetting of Air in Martin Heidegger. Translated by Mary Beth Mader. 1st ed, Constructs Series. London: The Athlone Press, 1999.

———. I Love to You: Sketch for a Felicity within History. New York: Routledge, 1996.

———. Je, Tu, Nous: Toward a Culture of Difference. New York: Routledge, 2007.

———. Key Writings, Athlone Contemporary European Thinkers. New York: Continuum 2004.

———. Marine Lover of Friedrich Nietzsche. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.

———. "Questions to Immanuel Levinas: On the Divinity of Love." In Re-Reading Levinas edited by R. Bernasconi and S Critchley. London: Athlone, 1991.

———. "Seminar." Nottingham University, 2010.

———. Sexes and Genealogies. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

———. Sharing the World. London: Continuum, 2008.

———. This Sex Which Is Not One. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985.

———. To Be Two. New York: Routledge, 2001.

———. To Speak Is Never Neutral. New York: Routledge, 2002.

———. The Way of Love, Athlone Contemporary European Thinkers. London: Continuum, 2004.

———. Why Different? A Culture of Two Subjects. Translated by Camille Collins. New York: Semiotext(e), 2000.

Irigaray, Luce Speculum of the Other Woman. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985.

———. Thinking the Difference, for a Peaceful Revolution. Translated by Karin Montin. London: Athlone Press, 1994.

Irigaray, Luce, and Mary Green, eds. Luce Irigaray: Teaching. London: Continuum, 2008.

Irigaray, Luce, and Margaret Whitford. The Irigaray Reader, Blackwell Readers. Cambridge: Basil Blackwell, 1991.

James, William. The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature. Rockville: Arc Manor, 2008.

Jantzen, Grace. Becoming Divine: Towards a Feminist Philosophy of Religion. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998.

———. "‘Death, Then, How Could I Yield to It?’ Kristeva's Mortal Visions." In Religion in Frech Feminist Thought: Critical Perspectives, edited by Morny Joy, Kathleen O'Grady and Judith L Poxon. London: Routledge, 2003.

———. "Feminists, Philosophers and Mystics." Hypatia 9, no. 4 (1994): 186-206.

———. Julian of Norwich: Mystic and Theologian. Trowbridge: The Cromwell Press, 2000.

———. Power, Gender and Christian Mysticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Jardine, David. "Birding Lessons and the Teachings of Cicadas." Canadian Journal of Environmental Education 3 (1998): 92-98.

Jaspers, Karl. Philosophy, Volume Two. Translated by E. B Ashton: University of Chicago, 1969.

Johnson, Elizabeth. She Who Is: The Mystery of God in Feminist Theological Discourse. New York: Crossroads Publishing, 1992.

Johnson, Robert. The Fisher King and the Handless Maiden. San Francisco: Harper, 1993.

Johnston, Adrian. "Jacques Lacan." edited by Edward N. Zalta: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2013.

Johnston, William. The Mystical Way: Silent Music and the Wounded Stag. Revised and edited by William Johnston ed. New York: Harper Collins 1993.

Jones, Rachel. Irigaray: Towards a Sexuate Philosophy. Cambridge: Polity, 2011.

Jones, Serene. "Women's Experience between a Rock and a Hard Place: Feminist, Womanist, and Mujerista Theologies in North America." In Horizons in Feminist Theology: Identity, Tradition, and Norms, edited by Rebecca S. Chopp and Sheila Greeve Davaney. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1997.

Joy, Morny, ed. After Appropriation: Explorations of Intercultural Philosophy and Religion. Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 2011.

———, ed. Continental Philosophy and Philosophy of Religion. New York: Sprkinger, 2011.

———. Divine Love: Luce Irigaray, Women, Gender and Religion. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006.

———. "Women, Sacrifice, and Transcendence." In Women and the Divine: Touching Transcendence, edited by Gillian Howie and J'annine Jobling. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Jung, Carl Gustav. Apects of the Feminine. London: Ark, 1982.

———. The Collected Works of C.G. Jung. Translated by R.F.C.Hull. 20 vols, Bollingen Series. London: Routledge, 1977.

———. "Letters to Oskar Schmitz." Psychological Perspectives Spring (1975): 82.

———. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. New York: Vintage, 1963.

———. "Seven Sermons to the Dead." http://www.hsuyun.org/chan/en/essays/guest-essays/603-the-seven-sermons-to-the-dead-written-by-basilides-in-alexandria-the-city-where-the-east-toucheth-the-west.html.

———. The Visions Seminars, Bollingen Series Xcix. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Jung, Emma. Animus and Anima: Two Essays. Putnam: Spring Publications, 1957.

Jung, Emma, and Marie Louise von Franz. The Grail Legend. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Kallhoff, Angela, ed. Martha C. Nussbaum: Ethics and Political Philosophy: Lecture and Colloquium in Münster 2001. London: Transaction Publishers, 2001.

Keller, Catherine. "Seeking and Sucking: On Religion and Essence in Feminist Theology." In Horizons in Feminist Theology: Identity, Tradition, and Norms. , edited by & Davaney R. S. Chopp, S. G. . Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1997.

Keller, Evelyn Fox. Reflections on Gender and Science. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

King, Mike. "Cutting "God" Down to Size: Transcendence and the Feminine." In Women and the Divine: Touchng Transcendence, edited by J'annine Jobling and Gillian Howie. New York: Pulgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Korsmeyer, Carolyn. "Feminist Aesthetics." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2008.

Kristeva, Julia. "From One Identity to Another." In Postmodern Literary Theory: An Anthology, edited by Lucy Niall. Oxford: Blackwell, 2000.

———. New Maladies of the Soul, European Perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.

———. The Revolution in Poetic Language. Translated by Margaret Waller. 1984 English ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1974.

———. Revolution in Poetic Language. Translated by Margaret Waller, A Columbia Centennial Classic. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984.

———. Tales of Love. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.

Kristeva, Julia, and Toril Moi. The Kristeva Reader. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

Kruks, Sonia. Retrieving Experience: Subjectivity and Recognition in Feminist Politics. New York: Cornell University Press, 2001.

Kruse, Felicia E. "Luce Irigaray's Parler Femme and American Metaphysics." Transactions 27, no. 4 (1991): 451-64.

La Caze, Marguerite. "Seeing Oneself Though the Eyes of the Other: Asymmetrical Reciprocity and Self-Respect." Hypatia 23, no. 3 (2008): 118-35.

Lacan, Jacques. Ecrit: A Selection. Translated by Alan Sheridan. London: Routledge, 1977.

———. Feminine Sexuality Translated by Jacqueline Rose. Edited by J Mitchell and J. Rose. Hampshire: Macmillan Press, 1982.

———. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis New York: Norton, 1994.

———. On Feminine Sexuality: The Limits of Love and Knowledge. New York: Norton, 1998.

———. Seminars Book 7, the Ethics of Psychoanalysis. Translated by Denis Porter. London: Routledge, 1992.

Landman, Martha. http://www.witsnq.blogspot.com.au.

Langton, Rae. "Beyond a Pragmatic Critique of Reason." Australasian Journal of Philosophy 71, no. 4 (1993): 364-84.

Le Dœuff, Michèle. Hipparchia's Choice: An Essay Concerning Women, Philosophy Etc. Translated by Trista Selous. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

———. The Philosophical Imaginary. Translated by C Gordon. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989.

Leeuwen, Anne van "Sexuate Difference, Ontological Difference: Between Irigaray and Heidegger " Continental Philosophy Review 43 (2010): 111–26 

Lehmann, K., and A. Raffelt, eds. The Practice of the Faith: A Handbook of Contemporary Spirituality New York: Crossroads, 1986.

Levi-Strauss, Calude. The Elementary Structures of Kinship. Translated by J. H. Bell. Boston: Beacon, 1969.

Lévinas, Emmanuel. Otherwise Than Being, or Beyond Essence. Translated by Alhonso Lingis. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1991.

———. Totality and Infinity: An Essay on Exteriority. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1969.

Lloyd, Genevieve. "The Man of Reason." In Women, Knowledge, and Reality: Explorations in Feminist Philosophy, edited by Anne Garry and Marilyn Pearsall. London: Routledge, 1989.

Lockhart, Russell A. Words as Eggs. Dallas: Spring Publications, 1983.

Lukoff, David. "The Diagnosis of Mystical Experiences with Psychotic Features." Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 17, no. 2 (1985).

Mader, Mary Beth. "The Forgetting of Feeding: Luce Irigaray's Critique of Martin Heidegger." In In between the Psyche and the Social: Psychoanalytic Social Theory, edited by K.E. Oliver and Steve Edwin. Lanham: Roman & Littlfield Publishers, 2002.

Martin, Alison. "Luce Irigaray and Divine Matter." In Women and Representation, edited by D Knight and J Still, 132-41. Nottingham: WIF Publications, 2003.

———. Luce Irigaray and the Question of the Divine. Leeds: Maney Publishing, 2000.

McGinn, Bernard. ""Evil-Sounding, Rash, and Suspect of Heresy": Tensions between Mysticism and Magisterium in the History of the Church." The Catholic Historical Review 90, no. 2 (2004): 193-212.

———. "Love, Knowledge, and Mystical Union in Western Christianity: Twelfth to Sixteenth Centuries." Church History 56, no. No. 1. (March) (1987): 7-24.

———, ed. Meister Eckhart and the Beguine Mystics. New York: Continuum, 1997.

Merchant, Carolyn. "Ecological Revolutions : Nature, Gender, and Science in New England." Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. Phenomenology of Perception. New York: Routledge, 1968.

———. The Visible and the Invisible. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1968.

Merton, Thomas. New Seeds of Contemplation. New York: New Directions, 1972.

Michaelson, Jay. God in Your Body: Kabbalah, Mindfulness and Embodied Spiritual Practice. Woodstock, Vermont: Jewish Lights Publishing, 2007.

Mikkola, Mari. "Feminist Perspectives on Sex and Gender." In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta, 2012.

Moi, Toril "From Femininity to Finitude: Freud, Lacan, and Feminism, Again." Signs 29, no. 3 (2004): 841-78.

———, ed. The Kristeva Reader. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

———. What Is a Woman? And Other Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Moloney, Sharon. "Female Body as Sacred: Australian Women's Bio-Spiritual Experiences of Menstruation and Birth." Doctor of Philosophy, James Cook University, 2009.

Monte, Cedrus. "Numen of the Flesh." Quadrant: Journal of the C. G. Jung Foundation for Analytical Psychology 2005, no. Summer (2005).

Moore, Thomas. The Re-Enchantment of Everyday Life. New York: HarperPerennial, 1996.

Moulton, Janice. "A Paradigm of Philosophy: The Adversary Method." In Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphyics, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, edited by S Harding and M. B Hintikka. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kelwer Academic Publishers, 2003.

Mulder, Anne-Marie. Divine Flesh, Embodied Word: ‘Incarnation’ as a Hermeneutical Key to a Feminist Theologian’s Reading of Luce Irigaray’s Work. Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam 2006.

Murphy, Michael. The Future of the Body. New York: The Putnam Publishing Company, 1993.

Needleman, Jacob. Lost Christianity: A Journey of Rediscovery to the Center of Christian Experience. New York: Harper and Row, 1980.

Neumann, Eric. The Mystic Vision, Papers from the Eranos Year Books. London Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1969.

Newman, Barbara. From Virile Woman to Womanchrist: Studies in Medieval Religion and Literature, Middle Ages Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995.

———. Sister of Wisdom: St Hildegard’s Theology of the Feminine. Berkeley Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987.

Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan. "Explaining the Gender Difference in Depressive Symptoms." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77, no. 5 (1999): 1061-72.

Nussbaum, Martha C. Love’s Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

———. "Objectification." Philosophy and Public Affairs 24, no. 4 (1995): 249-91.

———. Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Oksala, Johanna. "Anarchic Bodies: Foucault and the Feminist Question of Experience." Hypatia 19, no. 4 (2004): 99-121.

Otto, Rudolph. The Idea of the Holy: An Inquiry into the Non-Rational Factor in the Idea of the Divine and Its Relation to the Rational. Translated by J. W. Harvey. Oxford: Kessinger Publishing, 2004.

Papadaki, Evangelia (Lina). "Feminist Perspectives on Objectification." edited by Edward N Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2011.

Parry, Richard. "Episteme and Techne." edited by Edward N Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2008.

Penner, Hans. "The Mystical Illusion." In Mysticism and Religious Traditions, edited by Steven Katz. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Pirruccello, Ann. "Making the World My Body: Simone Weil and Somatic Practice." Philosophy East and West 52, no. 4 (2002): 479-97.

Pluhacek, S. "To the Other as Other-Hearing, Listening, Understanding." Paragraph 25, no. 3 (2002): 45-56.

Prud’homme, Johanne, and Lyne Légaré. "Kristeva: The Subject in Process." (2006), http://www.signosemio.com/kristeva/subject-in-process.asp.

Ranciere, Jacques. Dis-Agreement: Politics and Philosophy Translated by Julie Ross. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999.

Reeve, C. D. C. "Plato on Friendship and Eros." edited by Edward Zalta, N. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2011.

Reilly, Patricia Lynn. A God Who Looks Like Me: Discovering a Woman-Affirming Spirituality. New York: Ballantine 1995.

Rich, Adrienne. Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution. New York: Bantam, 1977.

———. A Wild Patience Has Taken Me This Far: Poems 1978-1981 New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1982.

Ricoeur, Paul. Time and Narrative. Translated by Kathleen Blamey and David Pellauer. 3 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984-1988.

Riley, Denise. Am I That Name? Feminism and the Category of 'Women' in History. London: Macmillan, 1988.

Rilke, Rainer Maria, Franz Xaver Kappus, and Stephen Mitchell. Letters to a Young Poet. 1st Vintage Books ed. New York: Vintage Books, 1987.

Rimbaud, Arthur. Illuminations and Other Prose Poems. Translated by Louise Varese. New York: Penguin Books, 1957.

Robinson, Howard. "Dualism." In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta, 2012.

Rodkey, Christopher Demuth In the Horizon of the Infinite: Paul Tillich and the Dialectic of the Sacred. Ann Arbor: ProQuest, 2009.

Rohr, Richard. The Naked Now: Learning to See as the Mystics See. New York: Crossroad, 2009.

Rowland, Susan. "Jung and Derrida: The Numinous, Deconstruction and Myth." In The Idea of the Numinous: Contemporary Jungian and Psychoanalytic Perspectives, edited by Ann Casement and David Tacey. New York: Routledge, 2006.

———. Jung: A Feminist Revision. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2002.

Sanford, John. Fate, Love and Ecstasy New York: Chiron Publications, 1995.

Saussure, Ferdinand de. Course in General Linguistics. London: Peter Owen, 1962.

Schemen, Naomi. "The Unavoidability of Gender." In Women, Knowledge, and Reality: Explorations in Feminist Philosophy, edited by Ann Garry and Marilyn Pearsall. London: Routledge, 1996.

Schimmel, Annemarie. Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2011.

Schor, Naomi. Bad Objects: Essays Popular and Unpopular. Durham: Duke University Press, 1995.

Schor, Naomi, and Elizabeth Weed. The Essential Difference, Books from Differences. Bloomington Indiana University Press, 1994.

———. The Essential Difference. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Schroeder, Jeanne Lorraine. "The Vestal and the Fasces: Hegel, Lacan, Property, and the Feminine." Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Schüssler Fiorenza, Elizabeth. In Memory of Her: A Feminist Theological Reconstruction of Christian Origins. New York: Crossroad, 1995.

Scott, Joan Wallach. "Experience." In Feminists Theorize the Political, edited by Judith Butler and Joan Scott, 22-40. New York: Routledge, 1992.

Scruton, Roger. The Face of God: The Gifford Lectures 2010. London: Continuum, 2012.

Shiva, Vandana. Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development. London: Zed Books, 1988.

Singer, June. Seeing through the Visible World: Jung, Gnosis and Chaos New York: Harper and Rowe, 1990.

Smith, Anne-Marie. Julia Kristeva: Speaking the Unspeakable. London: Pluto, 1998.

Smith, John E. "William James’s Account of Mysticism: A Critical Appraisal." In Mysticism and Religious Traditions, edited by Steven Katz. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Snyder, Midori. "Armless Maiden." In The Armless Maiden: And Other Tales for Childhood's Survivors, edited by Terri Windling: Tor, 1995.

Soskice, Janet Martin. "Love and Attention." In Feminist Philosophy of Religion: Critical Readings, edited by P. S. Anderson, & Clack, B. London: Routledge, 2004.

Sovatsky, Stuart. "The Pleasures of Celibacy." Yoga Journal March (1987): 41-76.

Spelman, Elizabeth V. Inessential Woman: Problems of Exclusion in Feminist Thought. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988.

Still, Judith. "Poetic Nuptials." Paragraph 25, no. 3 (2002): 3-7.

Stone, Alison. "Essentialism and Anti-Essentialism in Feminist Philosophy." Journal of Moral Philosophy 1, no. 2 (2004): 135-53.

Tacey, David. Reenchantment: The New Australian Spirituality. Sydney: HarperCollins, 2000.

Taliaferro, Charles. "Philosophy of Religion." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2011.

Thandeka. "The Self between Feminist Theory and Theology." In Horizons in Feminist Theology: Identity, Tradition, and Norms, edited by Rebecca S. Chopp and Sheila Greeve Davaney. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1997.

Threadgold, Terry. Feminist Poetics: Poesis, Performance, Histories. London: Routledge, 1997.

Tilghman, Carolyn M. "The Flesh Made Word: Luce Irigaray’s Rendering of the Sensible Transcendental " Janus Head 11, no. 1 (2008): 39-54.

Tong, Rosemarie , and Nancy Williams. "Feminist Ethics." edited by Edward N Zelta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2011.

Toyoda, Sonoko. Memories of Our Lost Hands: Searching for Feminine Spirituality and Creativity. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2006.

Ulanov, Ann Belford. The Feminine in Jungian Psychology and in Christian Theology. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1971.

———. Receiving Woman: Studies in the Psychology and the Theology of the Feminine. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1981.

Underhill, Evelyn. Mysticism. New York: Meridian, 1955.

von Franz, Marie-Louise. Animus and Anima in Fairy Tales. Toronto: Inner City Books, 2002.

———. Archetypal Patterns in Fairy Tales. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1997.

———. The Feminine in Fairy Tales. Boston: Shambhala, 1993.

———. The Interpretation of Fairy Tales. Boston: Shambhala, 1996.

———. The Psychological Meaning of Redemption Motifs in Fairytales. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1980.

Walker Bynum, Caroline "Wonder." The American Historical Review 102 no. Feb (1997): 1-26.

Walker, Michelle Boulous. Philosophy and the Maternal Body: Reading Silence. London: Routledge, 1998.

Wapnick, K. "Mysticism and Schizophrenia." Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 6, no. 1 (1972).

Warner, Marina. From the Beast to the Bolnde: Fairy Tales and Their Tellers. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux., 1996.

Weil, Simone. First and Last Notebooks. Translated by Richard Rees. London: Oxford Universit Press, 1970.

———. Gravity and Grace. London: Routledge, 1995.

———. Notebooks. Translated by Arthur Wills. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1956.

———. Simone Weil: An Anthology. Miles, Sian ed. New York: Gove Press, 2000.

———. Waiting for God. Translated by Emma Craufurd. New York: Harper Colophon, 1973.

Whitford, Margaret, ed. The Irigaray Reader. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991c.

———. "Irigaray's Body Symbolic." Hypatia 6, no. 3 (1991a): 97-110.

———. Luce Irigaray: Philosophy in the Feminine: Routledge, 1991b.

Winnicott, D.W. Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment: Studies in the Theory of Emotional Development. London: Hogarth, 1965.

———. "Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena—a Study of the First Not-Me Possession." 1953.

Wisnewsk, Jeremy Heidegger: An Introduction. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield, 2013.

Wolff, Toni. Structural Forms of the Feminine Psyche. Translated by P Watzlawik. Zurich: C.G. Jung Institute, 1956.

Woodman, Marion. Addiction to Perfection: The Still Unravaged Bride. A Psychological Study. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1982.

———. The Pregnant Virgin: A Process of Psychological Transformation. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1985.

Woodman, Marion, and Elinor Dickson. Dancing in the Flames: The Dark Goddess in the Transformation of Consciousness. Boston: Shambala, 1997.

Young, Iris Marion. Intersecting Voices: Dilemmas of Gender, Political Philosophy, and Policy. Princeton New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1997.

———. On Female Body Experience: ”Throwing Like a Girl” and Other Essays, Studies in Feminist Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2005.

Young, Julian. Heidegger's Later Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Yuasa, Yasuo. The Body: Toward an Eastern Mind-Body Theory. Translated by Nagatomo Shigenori and T. P. Kasulis. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1987.

Zakin, Emily. "Psychoanalytic Feminism." In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N Zalta, 2011.

Zipes, Jack David. The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World. New York: Pulgrave Macmillan, 2002.

———. Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion. London: Heinemann, 1983.